When it comes to destructive summer garden pests, tobacco and tomato hornworms might just top the list! The ugly green creatures can measure 4 to 5 inches long, and devour tomato and pepper plants overnight.
Hornworms are found in almost every corner of the United States and beyond. There are actually two types, and depending on where you live, you might have one or both attempting to ruin your garden.
Tomato hornworms have a dark spike at the point of their back side, and 8 white stripes down their body. Tobacco hornworms, on the other hand, have a red spike with 7 white stripes. Tomato hornworms are more prevalent in the north, while tobacco hornworms are found in the south and Southwest. They both can quickly decimate the Nightshade family of plants, which include tomatoes, peppers, potatoes, and tobacco plants.
Hornworms emerge from the ground as pupa in late spring in the form of a large moth. These moths are dark brown and have the flight skills of the hummingbird. They can hover over plants and be nearly impossible to catch due to their quick nature. The moths then lay small eggs on the undersides of plants, which then emerge as hornworm caterpillars. And the damage begins!
Spotting The Damage
Hornworms come to life and start their foraging at the peak of summer. Their damage is easy to spot. The large green caterpillars usually start stripping off and devouring leaves and stems at or near the top of plants. If you notice the tops of your plants missing large chunks of foliage, with only stubbed remnants left of the branches – you most likely have hornworms! Once they have devoured the leaves and stems, they will find their way onto the ripening fruit. If left alone, tomato hornworms can ruin every tomato on a plant in just a few days.
Although their damage might be easy to spot, the tobacco and tomato hornworms are not! Their translucent green bodies camouflage them perfectly against the leaves of garden plants. It’s almost like trying to play a game of “Where’s Waldo” trying to locate them on damaged plants.
Controlling Tobacco and Tomato Hornworms
The single, most effective method to control hornworms is the old-fashioned art of daily patrol and hand picking. But they key to total control starts and ends with the word “daily.” In just a 2 day period, the caterpillars can go from 1/2″ long to 4″ from eating everything in sight.
There are some organic insecticides available, but they are not highly effective, and kill many beneficial insects too.
Beyond looking for the tell-tale damage to foliage and stems at the top of the plants, be on the lookout for other earlier signs. Hornworms will leave small piles of droppings on the top side of leaves. If it is bright green, it is fresh, and the hornworm is nearby. If it is darker or dry, it is a bit older and look lower in the plant for the culprit. Once you have trained your eyes, it is amazing how quickly you can start to spot the damage and remove them.
If you have chickens, feed the worms to them, they love them! If not, chop them in half and dispose.
There is one-time not to remove the hornworms. If you spot a hornworm with small white protrusions on it’s back, leave it be. Those white spots are the eggs of parasitic and extremely beneficial wasps. If they are present, the horworm is not a danger to your crops and will soon die. And by leaving it, those wasps can hatch and find their way to take out other hornworms.
Long Term Control
One of the best natural controls against tobacco and tomato hornworms in the long-term is chickens. If you are fortunate to have a small flock, let them forage in the garden each fall after the crops have been pulled. They can scratch and clear the pupa from the ground, eliminating most of the next years batch.
If you unearth any of the brown pupa while digging, destroy them as well. They are usually only a 1/4″ or less under the soil, and look like the hardened shell of a small caterpillar. With a little diligence, you can keep hornworms at bay! For other summertime garden tips, check out our article entitled : 7 Quick Garden Tips To Keep Your Garden Beautiful This Summer!
Here’s to keeping the hornworms under control – Jim and Mary! If you would like to receive our DIY, Gardening and Recipe articles each week, you can sign up via email at the very bottom of this post. You can also like and follow us on Facebook, Twitter or Instagram to receive all of our latest tips and articles. This article may contain affiliate links.